10 Class social science Economics Notes in English chapter 1 Development


10 Class social science Economics Notes in English chapter 1 Development

Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science ECO Development ECO The Story of Development: The traditional notion of development; National Income and Per-capita Income. Growth of NI - critical appraisal of existing development indicators (PCI, IMR, SR and other income and health indicators) The need for health and educational development; Human Development Indicators (in simple and brief as a holistic measure of development.

Class 10th social science Economics chapter 1 Development Notes in English

📚 Chapter = 1 📚
👉 Development 👈

❇️ Development :-

🔹 Development is defined as growth. Some of the important goals are seeking more income, equal treatment, freedom, security, respect for others etc.


🔹 People seek things that are most important for them, i.e., that which can fulfill their aspirations or desires. 

🔹 In fact, at times, two persons or groups of persons may seek things which are conflicting. 

🔹 So two things are quite clear: 

    (i) Different persons can have different developmental goals. 

   (ii) What may be developed for one may not be developed for the other. It may even be destructive for the other.

❇️ Income and Other Goals :-

🔹person have two types of development goals ie:

👉 1) Material, Things :- money, car, house etc.

👉  2 ) Non-Material Things :- Fredom, friends, equality, respect ete for  ie  both material and non-material things are equally important or we can say  that for
development people look at mix of goals.

❇️ Concept of National Development :-

🔹 World Development Report 2006, “In 2004 countries with per capita income of Rs. 453000 per annum are called rich or developed countries.

🔹 Those with per capita income of Rs.37000 or less are called low income countries.

🔹 Human Development Report 2006 published by UNDP, “Development is based on per capita income, educational levels of the people and their health status.

❇️ National Development :-

🔹 National development refers to the ability of a country to improve the social welfare of the people. 

🔹 For example: by providing social amenities such as quality education, potable water, transportation, infrastructure and medical care.

❇️ Comparing Development of different countries/States :-

✴️ Comparing Economic Development of Countries :-

🔹 It is earned per person in a given area.

🔹 It is also known as the per capita income.

🔹 Standard of living of the people depends on their per capita income.

🔹 Countries with higher per capita income are considered to be more developed than with less per capita income.

🔹 It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population.

❇️ Classifying countries (per capita income criteria of World Bank)

👉 Rich countries ➡️ US$ 12236 PA or above
👉 Low income countries ➡️ US$ 1005 PA or less
👉 Low middle income countries ➡️ US$ 1840 PA in 2016.  india comes in this category

❇️ Average Income Per capit a Income :-

🔹 Per capita income or average income is calculated by dividing the total income of a country with its population.

🔹 Averages are useful for comparison, they also hide disparities.

❇️  Income along with other criterion :-

🔹 In comparison of per capita income states, Haryana has 1,62,034 and bihar has 34,168 per capita income respectively. 

🔹 In this case Haryana would be considered most developed and Bihar would be considered the least developed.

🔹 But in comparison of infant mortality rate Haryana: 36 per thousand.

🔹 Kerala is 12 per thousand and Bihar is 42 per thousand.

🔹 This shows that besides income all the other factors are also important.

❇️ Infant Mortality Rate :-

🔹 It indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular area.

❇️ Literacy Rate :-

🔹 It indicates the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group.

❇️ Non Attendance Ratio :-

🔹 it is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.

❇️ Public Facilities :-

🔹 The facilities that are provided by the government to satisfy the collective needs of the people, example- hospitals, schools, community halls etc.

🔹 Money in your pocket cannot buy all the goods and services that you may need to live well. Eg: 

       1. Money cannot buy a pollution free environment.
       2. It cannot ensure that you are getting unadulterated medicines.

🔹 Kerala has a low Infant Mortality rate(12 per thousand) since it has adequate provisions of basic health and educational facilities. 

🔹 Public distribution system (PDS) of some states functions well. Health and nutrition status of people of such states is likely to be better than the others.

❇️ Human Development :-

🔹 It is defined as a composite statistic of the life expectancy, Education and per capita income indicators which are used to rank countries in four tiers of human development. 

🔹 Human development index report is prepared by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

❇️  The three Indicators :-

✴️ Life Expectancy Ratio: It is defined as the average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth.

✴️ Gross enrolment Ratio: it is determined by the number of students enrolled in school at different grade levels.

✴️ Per capita Income: it is the mean income of the people in an economic unit, calculated by total income divided by the total population.

❇️ Human Development Index :-

👉 Total number of countries whose HDI report is prepared : 189

👉  HDI rank of India (2016) : 131 

👉  HDI rank of India (2019) : 129

❇️ Sustainability of Development :-

🔹 Development should take place without harming the environment. 

🔹 It is the capability to use resources judiciously and maintain the ecological balance.

🔹 It is essential for the survival of the future generation. It takes care of overall development of economy such as health care and education.

👉 Example

✴️ Renewable Resource : Groundwater is under serious threat of overuse. It is replenished by nature. 

👉 Example 

✴️ Non-Renewable Resource : the reserves of Crude Oil will last for 50 years for all over the world.

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