10 Class social science Economics Notes in English chapter 1 Development


10 Class social science Economics Notes in English chapter 1 Development

Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science ECO Development ECO The Story of Development: The traditional notion of development; National Income and Per-capita Income. Growth of NI - critical appraisal of existing development indicators (PCI, IMR, SR and other income and health indicators) The need for health and educational development; Human Development Indicators (in simple and brief as a holistic measure of development.

Class 10th social science Economics chapter 1 Development Notes in English

๐Ÿ“š Chapter = 1 ๐Ÿ“š
๐Ÿ‘‰ Development ๐Ÿ‘ˆ

❇️ Development :-

๐Ÿ”น Development is defined as growth. Some of the important goals are seeking more income, equal treatment, freedom, security, respect for others etc.


๐Ÿ”น People seek things that are most important for them, i.e., that which can fulfill their aspirations or desires. 

๐Ÿ”น In fact, at times, two persons or groups of persons may seek things which are conflicting. 

๐Ÿ”น So two things are quite clear: 

    (i) Different persons can have different developmental goals. 

   (ii) What may be developed for one may not be developed for the other. It may even be destructive for the other.

❇️ Income and Other Goals :-

๐Ÿ”นperson have two types of development goals ie:

๐Ÿ‘‰ 1) Material, Things :- money, car, house etc.

๐Ÿ‘‰  2 ) Non-Material Things :- Fredom, friends, equality, respect ete for  ie  both material and non-material things are equally important or we can say  that for
development people look at mix of goals.

❇️ Concept of National Development :-

๐Ÿ”น World Development Report 2006, “In 2004 countries with per capita income of Rs. 453000 per annum are called rich or developed countries.

๐Ÿ”น Those with per capita income of Rs.37000 or less are called low income countries.

๐Ÿ”น Human Development Report 2006 published by UNDP, “Development is based on per capita income, educational levels of the people and their health status.

❇️ National Development :-

๐Ÿ”น National development refers to the ability of a country to improve the social welfare of the people. 

๐Ÿ”น For example: by providing social amenities such as quality education, potable water, transportation, infrastructure and medical care.

❇️ Comparing Development of different countries/States :-

✴️ Comparing Economic Development of Countries :-

๐Ÿ”น It is earned per person in a given area.

๐Ÿ”น It is also known as the per capita income.

๐Ÿ”น Standard of living of the people depends on their per capita income.

๐Ÿ”น Countries with higher per capita income are considered to be more developed than with less per capita income.

๐Ÿ”น It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population.

❇️ Classifying countries (per capita income criteria of World Bank)

๐Ÿ‘‰ Rich countries ➡️ US$ 12236 PA or above
๐Ÿ‘‰ Low income countries ➡️ US$ 1005 PA or less
๐Ÿ‘‰ Low middle income countries ➡️ US$ 1840 PA in 2016.  india comes in this category

❇️ Average Income Per capit a Income :-

๐Ÿ”น Per capita income or average income is calculated by dividing the total income of a country with its population.

๐Ÿ”น Averages are useful for comparison, they also hide disparities.

❇️  Income along with other criterion :-

๐Ÿ”น In comparison of per capita income states, Haryana has 1,62,034 and bihar has 34,168 per capita income respectively. 

๐Ÿ”น In this case Haryana would be considered most developed and Bihar would be considered the least developed.

๐Ÿ”น But in comparison of infant mortality rate Haryana: 36 per thousand.

๐Ÿ”น Kerala is 12 per thousand and Bihar is 42 per thousand.

๐Ÿ”น This shows that besides income all the other factors are also important.

❇️ Infant Mortality Rate :-

๐Ÿ”น It indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular area.

❇️ Literacy Rate :-

๐Ÿ”น It indicates the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group.

❇️ Non Attendance Ratio :-

๐Ÿ”น it is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.

❇️ Public Facilities :-

๐Ÿ”น The facilities that are provided by the government to satisfy the collective needs of the people, example- hospitals, schools, community halls etc.

๐Ÿ”น Money in your pocket cannot buy all the goods and services that you may need to live well. Eg: 

       1. Money cannot buy a pollution free environment.
       2. It cannot ensure that you are getting unadulterated medicines.

๐Ÿ”น Kerala has a low Infant Mortality rate(12 per thousand) since it has adequate provisions of basic health and educational facilities. 

๐Ÿ”น Public distribution system (PDS) of some states functions well. Health and nutrition status of people of such states is likely to be better than the others.

❇️ Human Development :-

๐Ÿ”น It is defined as a composite statistic of the life expectancy, Education and per capita income indicators which are used to rank countries in four tiers of human development. 

๐Ÿ”น Human development index report is prepared by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

❇️  The three Indicators :-

✴️ Life Expectancy Ratio: It is defined as the average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth.

✴️ Gross enrolment Ratio: it is determined by the number of students enrolled in school at different grade levels.

✴️ Per capita Income: it is the mean income of the people in an economic unit, calculated by total income divided by the total population.

❇️ Human Development Index :-

๐Ÿ‘‰ Total number of countries whose HDI report is prepared : 189

๐Ÿ‘‰  HDI rank of India (2016) : 131 

๐Ÿ‘‰  HDI rank of India (2019) : 129

❇️ Sustainability of Development :-

๐Ÿ”น Development should take place without harming the environment. 

๐Ÿ”น It is the capability to use resources judiciously and maintain the ecological balance.

๐Ÿ”น It is essential for the survival of the future generation. It takes care of overall development of economy such as health care and education.

๐Ÿ‘‰ Example

✴️ Renewable Resource : Groundwater is under serious threat of overuse. It is replenished by nature. 

๐Ÿ‘‰ Example 

✴️ Non-Renewable Resource : the reserves of Crude Oil will last for 50 years for all over the world.

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