10 Class Geography Notes in English chapter 7 Life Lines of National Economy

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10 Class Geography Notes in English chapter 7 Life Lines of National Economy

CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science GEO Life Lines of National Economy GEO Life Lines of National Economy: the importance of transport and communication in the ever shrinking world.

Class 10th Geography chapter 7 Life Lines of National Economy Notes in English


📚 Chapter = 7 📚
👉 Life Lines of National Economy ðŸ‘ˆ

✳️ Introduction :-

Life lines of a country-Modern means of communication and transport which brings people together and helps in local, national and international trade. 

❇️ Means of transport :-

🔹 Means of transports which make possible the movement of goods, services and humans/animals from one place to another place.

🔹 Movement of these goods and services can be over three important domains of our earth i.e.

✴️ 1. Land :-

👉 Roadways 

👉 Railways 

👉 Pipelines

✴️ 2. Water :-

👉  Inland 

👉 Overseas

✴️ 3. Air :-

👉 Domestic

    🔸 Public undertaking 
    🔸 Private airlines

👉  International 

✳️ 1 . Land :-

❇️ Roadways :-

🔹 India has one of the largest road network in the world, aggregating to about 56 lakh kilometer.

❇️ Advantages of Roadways :-

🔹 over Railways Construction cost is much lower.

🔹 Can be laid any where such as on slopes, mountains.

🔹 Economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distance.

🔹 Provides door to door service, thus cost of loading and unloading is much lower.

🔹 Feeder to other models of transport as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports.

✴️ Roads can be classified on the basis of their capacity :-

🔶 1. Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways :-

🔸  The government has launched a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata Chennai- Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane Super Highways. 

🔸 The North-South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu) 

🔸  East-West Corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) and Porbander (Gujarat) 

🔸 These highway projects are being implemented by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).

🔶 2. NATIONAL HIGHWAYS :-

🔸 National Highways link extreme parts of the country. 

🔸  Laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD). 

🔸 A number of major National Highways run in North-South and East-West directions. 

🔸 Shah Suri Marg is called National Highway No.1, between Delhi and Amritsar.

🔶 3. STATE HIGHWAYS :-

🔸 Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as State Highways. 

🔸 These roads are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD) in State and Union Territories.

🔶 4. DISTRICT HIGHWAYS :-

🔸 These roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district. 

🔸 These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad.

🔶 5. OTHER ROADS :-

🔸 Rural roads, which link rural areas and villages with towns, are classified under this category. 

🔸 These roads received special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.

🔶 6. BORDER ROADS :-

🔸 Border Road Organisation a government of India undertaking constructs and maintains the border roads this organisation was established in the year 1960 and is responsible for the development of these roads. These roads are of 

a) strategic importance in the Northern and the North Eastern border areas. 
b) these roads have also improved access ability in the areas of difficult terrain and have helped in the economic development of these areas.

Note :- Roads can also be classified on the basis of the type of material used for their construction.

👉 Metalled Roads these roads are made up of cement concrete or even bituminous coal and are hence all weather roads. 

👉 Unmetalled Roads these roads go out of use during the rainy season.

❇️ ROAD DENSITY :-

🔹 The length of road per 100 sq. km of area is known as density of roads. 

🔹 Distribution of road is not uniform in the country. 

🔹 Density of all roads varies from only 10 km in Jammu & Kashmir to 375 km in Kerala with the national average of 75 km

❇️ PROBLEMS FACED DURING ROAD TRANSPORT Zoomed to fill :-


🔹 Road network is inadequate according to volume of traffic.

🔹 National Highways are inadequate too.

🔹 Half of the roads are unmettaled and this limits their usage during the rainy season.

🔹 The roadways are highly congested in cities.

🔹 Most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow.

❇️ RAILWAYS :-

🔹 Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India.

🔹 Conducts multifarious activities like business, sightseeing, pilgrimage.

🔹 The Indian Railways is the largest public sector undertaking.

❇️ CHALLENGES FOR THE INDIAN RAILWAYS :-

🔹 Difficult to lay railway lines in sandy, hilly, swampy and mountainous regions. 

🔹 Requires construction on bridges over rivers in North and Eastern India. 

🔹 Problems of sinking of railway tracks and landslides, blocking tracks.

❇️ PROBLEMS FACED BY INDIAN RAILWAYS :-

🔹 Many passengers travel without tickets.

🔹 Thefts and damaging of railway property.

🔹 People stop the trains, pull the chain unnecessarily.

❇️ PIPELINES :-

🔹 Used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas. 

🔹 Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry. 

🔹 The far inland locations of refineries like Barauni, Mathura, Panipat and gas based fertilizer plants could be thought of only because of pipelines. 

🔹 Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal. 

🔹 It rules out trans-shipment losses or delays.

❇️  There are three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country. 

🔹 1. From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad.

🔹 2. From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab, via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat.

🔹3. Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh.

❇️ Interesting facts :-

🔹 If mile stone is blue or black then you are heading towards district, that is district road. 

🔹 Yellow colour milestone signifies National highways.

✳️ 2. Water :-

Note:- 95 per cent of the country's trade volume (68 per cent in terms of value) is moved by sea.

🔹 Waterways are the cheapest means of transport. 

🔹 They are most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods.

🔹 It is a fuel-efficient and environment friendly mode of transport. 

🔹 India has inland navigation waterways of 14,500 km in length. Out of these only 3,700 km are navigable by mechanised boats. 

🔹 The following waterways have been declared as the National Waterways by the Government.

👉  The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km)-N.W. No.1

👉  The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km)-N.W. No.2 

👉 The West-Coast Canal in Kerala (205 km) – N.W. No.3

❇️ Major sea ports :-

🔹 Major ports handle 95 per cent of India's foreign trade.

✴️ KANDLA Kandla is a tidal port. It caters to the convenient handling of exports and imports of granary. 

✴️ Mumbai is the biggest port with a spacious natural and well-sheltered harbour. 

✴️ Jawaharlal Nehru port was planned with a view to decongest the Mumbai port and serve as a hub port for this region.

✴️ Marmagao port (Goa) is the premier iron ore exporting port of the country. 

✴️ Mangalore port, located in Karnataka caters to the export of iron ore concentrates from Kudremukh mines. 

✴️ Kochi is the extreme south- western port, located at the entrance of a lagoon with a natural harbour.

✴️  Tuticorin, in Tamil Nadu has a natural harbour and rich hinterland. 

✴️ Chennai is one of the oldest artificial ports of the country. 

✴️ Kolkata is an inland riverine port. This port serves a very large and rich hinterland of Ganga- Brahmaputra basin. 

✴️ Vishakhapatnam is the deepest landlocked and well-protected port. 

✴️ Haldia port was developed as a subsidiary port, in order to relieve growing pressure on the Kolkata port. 

✴️ Paradip port located in Orissa, specialises in the export of iron ore.

❇️ 3. AIRWAYS :-

🔹 It is the fastest, most comfortable and prestigious mode of transport. 

🔹 It can cover very difficult terrains like high mountains, dreary deserts, dense forests and also long oceanic stretches with great ease.

✴️ DOMESTIC :-

🔹 On the operational side, Indian Airlines, Alliance Air (subsidiary of Indian Airlines), private scheduled airlines and non- scheduled operators provide domestic air services.

✴️ INTERNATIONAL :-

🔹 Air India provides international air services.

❇️ DISADVANTAGES OF AIRWAYS :-

🔹 Air travel is not within the reach of the common people.

🔹 Only in the north- eastern states that special provisions are made for common people.

❇️ COMMUNICATIONS :-

👉 Long distance communication is far easier without physical movement of the communicator or receiver. 

👉 Personal communication and mass communication including television, radio, press, films, etc. are the major means of communication in the country. 

🔹 The Indian postal network is the largest in the world. It handles parcels as well as personal written communications. 

🔹  Cards and envelopes are considered first-class mail. 

🔹 Second-class mail includes book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals.

❇️ TELECOM NETWORKS :-

🔹 India has one of the largest telecom networks in Asia. 

🔹 More than two-thirds of the villages in India have already been covered with Subscriber Trunk Dialing (STD) telephone facility. 

🔹 The government has made special provision to extend twenty- four hours STD facility to every village in the country. 

🔹 It has been made possible by integrating the development in space technology with communication technology.

❇️ Mass communication :-

🔹 Mass communication provides entertainment and creates awareness among people about various national programmes and policies. 

🔹  It includes radio, television, newspapers, magazines, books and films.

👉  India Radio (Akashwani) and Doordarshan: broadcasts a variety of programmes in national, regional and local languages for various categories of people, spread over different parts of the country .

👉 India publishes a large number of newspapers and periodicals annually and in different ianguages.

❇️  International trade :-

🔹The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as trade. 

🔹 The market is the place where such exchanges take place. 

🔹 Trade between two countries is called international trade. 

🔹 It may take place through sea, air or land routes. 

🔹 The balance of trade of a country is the difference between its export and import.

👉 1. favourable balance of trade
👉 2. unfavourable balance of trade

❇️ favourable balance of trade :-

🔹 When the value of export exceeds the value of imports, it is called a favourable balance of trade.

❇️ unfavourable balance of trade :-

🔹 If the value of imports exceeds the value of exports, it is termed as unfavourable balance of trade.

❇️ TOURISM AS A TRADE :-

🔹 Tourism in India has grown substantially over the last three decades. 

🔹 More than 15 million people are directly engaged in the tourism industry. 

🔹 Tourism also promotes national integration, provides support to local handicrafts and cultural pursuits. 

🔹 It also helps in the development of international understanding about our culture and heritage. 

🔹 Rajasthan, Goa, Jammu and Kashmir and temple towns of south India are important destinations of foregin tourists in India.

❇️ Types of Tourism :-

🔹Heritage tourism 
🔹 Eco tourism 
🔹 Adventure tourism 
🔹Cultural tourism 
🔹 Medical tourism 
🔹 Business tourism

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