10 Class Geography Notes in English chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries


10 Class Geography Notes in English chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries

CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science GEO Manufacturing Industries GEO Manufacturing Industries: Types, spatial distribution, contribution of industries to the national economy, industrial pollution and degradation of environment, measures to control degradation. 

Class 10th Geography chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries Notes in English

📚 Chapter = 6 📚
👉 Manufacturing Industries 👈

❇️ Manufacturing :-

🔹  Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing. Manufacturing belongs to secondary sector in which the primary materials are processed and converted into finished goods.

❇️  Importance of manufacturing :-

🔹 Manufacturing industry helps in modernizing agriculture.  

🔹  The dependence on agriculture for people's income from the manufacturing industry is reduced.  

🔹 Manufacturing helps in increasing employment opportunities in the primary and secondary sectors. 

🔹 This helps in removing unemployment and poverty.  

🔹 Exports from manufacturing goods increase leading to foreign exchange in the country.  

🔹 The large-scale manufacturing in a country brings prosperity to the country.

❇️  Agriculture and industry in India are interdependent on each other :-

🔹 Agro-industries in India have boosted agriculture by raising its productivity. Industries depend on agriculture for their raw materials, e.g. cotton textile industry. Industries provide many agricultural inputs like irrigation pumps, fertilizers, insecticides, PVC pipes, machines and tools, etc. to the farmers. Development of different modes of transport by industrial sector has not only helped farmers to obtain agricultural inputs but has also helped them trade their products.

❇️  Contribution of manufacturing industry to national economy :-

🔹 The industry accounts for 27% of the gross domestic product (GDP).  Of this, 10% comes from mining, electricity and gas, the remaining 17% comes from manufacturing.  But this share of manufacturing in GDP has been stable for the last two decades.

🔹 The growth rate of manufacturing in the last decade has been 7%.  Since 2003, this growth rate has been 9 to 10%.  A growth rate of at least 12% is required for the next decade.

🔹 The Government of India has set up the National Manufacturing Council (NMCC) to formulate the right policies and make the industry function properly.

❇️ Industry :-

🔹 The broad form of manufacturing is called industry.

❇️ Factors which affect the location of an industry :-

🔹 Industries are not found everywhere. They are located at certain places only where they get favourable conditions to thrive. Industrial Location is governed mainly by the following factors :-

✴️ Geographical factors :-

🔹 (i) Availability of raw material. 

🔹 (ii) Energy and power resources.

🔹 (iii) Suitable climate. 

🔹 (iv) Land 

🔹 (v) Availability of water.(Inexpensive and abundant in case of some industries like Jute)

✴️ Non-geographical factors :-

🔹 (i) Labour

🔹 (ii) Capital

🔹 (iii) Bazaar/Markets' 

🔹 (iv) Services like Transport, Communication, Banking, Insurance etc. 

🔹 (v) Financial advice

🔹 (vi) Government policies

🔹 (vii) Infrastructure 

🔹 (viii) Entrepreneur

Many industries come together at urban centres to make use of the advantages. These are known as "agglomeration economies".

❇️  Classification of Industry :-

🔹 Five basis on which industries are classified.

❇️ 1. Classification on the basis of raw materials :-

✴️ Agro-based industries :- 

🔹 They obtain their raw materials from agricultural products. Example: Textiles-cotton, jute, silk and woolen. Rubber, Sugar, Coffee, Tea and Edible Oil, etc. 

✴️ Mineral-based industries :- 

🔹 They obtain their raw materials from minerals. Example: Iron and steel, cement, machine tools, petro- chemicals, etc.

❇️ 2. Classification On the basis of their Main Role :-

✴️ Basic Industries :- 

🔹 Those industries which provide raw material to other industries are called basic industries. These industries help the development of other industries, e.g. Iron and Steel, Copper and Aluminum Smelting 

✴️ Consumer Industries :- 

🔹 Those industries which produce goods for consumers are called consumer industries. Finished goods of these industries are directly sold in the market for consumers, e.g. Sugar, Toothpaste, Soap, Bread, Paper etc.

❇️ 3. Classification On the basis of ownership :-

✴️ Public sector industries :-  

🔹 Those industries which are owned and operated by any organisation of central government or state government such as Indian Railways, Shipping industries, Iron and steel industries of Durgapur and Bhilai etc. 

✴️ Private sector industry :- 

🔹 Those industries which are owned and operated by individuals or firms or companies. Such as Britannia industry which makes bread and biscuits, TISCO in Jamshedpur.

✴️ Joint sector industries :-

🔹 which are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by public and private sector.

✴️  Cooperative sector industries :-

🔹 are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. They pool in the resources and share the profits or losses proportionately such as the sugar industry in Maharashtra, the coir industry in Kerala.

❇️ 4. Classification On the basis of Capital Investment :-

✴️ Small Scale Industries :-

🔹 Those industries where investment of capital is less than Rupees one crore are called as small scale industries, e.g. Mat, Furniture, Toys, Bread, Tools etc. 

✴️ Large Scale Industries :-

🔹 Those industries where investment of capital is more than Rupees one crore are called as large scale industries, e.g. Iron & Steel, Petrochemicals, Cotton Textiles etc.

❇️ 5. Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods :-

✴️ Heavy Industries :-

🔹 Those industries which use heavy and bulky raw materials and produce heavy goods in large quantity are called heavy industries, e.g. Iron and Steel, Copper Smelting.

✴️ Light Industries :-

🔹 Those industries which use light and small raw materials and produce light goods are called light industries, e.g. Electrical, Toys, Tools, Utensils etc.

❇️ Agro-Based Industries :- 

🔹 Cotton, jute, silk, woollen textiles, sugar and edible oil, etc. industries are based on agricultural raw materials.

✴️ The Textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian Economy because :-

🔹lt contributes significantly to industrial production (14%). 

🔹 lt employs largest number of people after agriculture, i.e., 35 million persons directly. 

🔹 lts share in the foreign exchange earnings is significant at about 24.6%. 

🔹 lt contributes 4% towards GDP and is the only industry in the country which is self- reliant and complete in the value chain.

❇️ Cotton Textile Industry :-

🔹 It is an agro-based and the oldest industry in India. 

🔹 First cotton mill was established in 1854 in Mumbai. 

🔹 At present, it the largest industry in our country. There are about 1600 cotton textile mills in our country. Cotton textile mills are mainly concentrated in Maharashtra and Gujarat due to favourable conditions. Important centres are Mumbai, Pune,Ahmedabad, Surat, Rajkot etc. Other centres are Agra, Kanpur, Hugli, Chennai,Madurai etc. 

✴️ Cotton textile is produced by three methods in India :-

🔹 a) Handloom,

🔹 b) Power-looms and

🔹 c) Mills 

🔹 Cotton textile industry involves ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing,tailoring and packaging to produce readymade garments.

🔹 India exports yarn and readymade garments to USA, Japan, UK, France, Nepal, Sri Lanka etc.

❇️ Factors for concentration/location of cotton textile industry in Maharashtra and-Gujarat :-

🔹 Availability of raw cotton was abundant and cheap. 

🔹 Moist climate in these coastal States also helped in the development of cotton textile industry because humid conditions are required for weaving the cloth, else the yam breaks. 

🔹 Well developed transportation system and accessible port facilities in Maharashtra and Gujarat. 

🔹 Proximity to the market as cotton clothes are ideal to wear in thesê warm and humid States.

❇️ Problems faced by the cotton textile industry :-

🔹 Power supply is erratic in our country. Machinery needs to be upgraded, especially in weaving and processing sectors. Low output of labor. We still need to import cotton in spite of the fact that the production of cotton in the country has increased. Stiff competition from the synthetic fiber industry.

❇️ Jute Textiles :-

🔹 India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods. There are about 70 jute mills in our country. 

🔹 First jute mill was setup in Rishra [Kolkata] in 1859. 

🔹 Most of the jute mills are located along Hugli River in West Bengal due to favourable conditions. Jute is used in making rope, bags, carpets etc. Bihar, UP, Assam and Tripura also have jute mills.

❇️ Problem faced by the Jute industry of India?

🔹 Things from synthetic fibre are in the market. 

🔹 Synthetic fibre is cheap, compare to jute. 

🔹 The jute cultivation is very expensive and hard. 

🔹 Stiff competition in the international market from other substitutes is a big challenge. 

🔹 Bangladesh is a big challenge as a competitor while Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand are other competitors.

❇️ Factors responsible for the concentration of jute industry on the banks of Hoogly :-

🔹 Proximity of the jute producing areas to the Hoogly Basin. 

🔹 Inexpensive water transport provided by the Hoogly river. 

🔹 It is well connected by a good network of railways, waterways and roadways. 

🔹 Abundant water for processing raw jute. 

🔹 Availability of cheap labor from West Bengal,Bihar, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh. 

🔹 Kolkata as a port and large urban centre, provides banking, insurance and port facilities.

❇️ Sugar Industry :-

🔹 India stands second as a world producer of sugar but occupies the first place in the production of gur and khandsari. 

🔹 The raw material used in this industry is bulky, and in haulage its sucrose content reduces. 

🔹 This industry is seasonal in nature so, it is ideally suited to the cooperative sector. there is a tendency for the mills to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states, especially in Maharashtra.

🔹 This is because the cane produced here has a higher sucrose content. 

🔹 The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season. Moreover, the cooperatives are more SUccessful in these states.

❇️ Mineral Based Industries :-

🔹 Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral based industries.

❇️ Iron & Steel Industry :-

🔹 This industry is called as basic industry because it provides raw material to many other industries such as machine tools, transport equipment, construction material etc. 

🔹 It is also called as heavy industry because raw materials [iron ore, coal, limestone] are bulky in nature. 

🔹 Iron ore mixed with limestone is smelted in the blast furnace using coking coal to produce pig iron. The ratio of iron ore, limestone and coking coal used in 4:2:1. Pig iron is mixed with manganese, chromium and nickel which make it more stronger steel. 

🔹 Most of the steel plants are located in Chotanagpur region due to its favourable conditions. 

🔹 Important integrated steel plat Jamshedpur, Durgapur, Bokaro, Bhilai, Burnpur are etc. 

🔹 India produces about 33 million tons of steel every year even though per capita consumption of steel is very low i.e. 32 kg. It is low because India has low economic and industrial development.

❇️ Iron & Steel Industry problems :-

Today steel industries in India are facing many problems:

🔹 a) High cost of production,

🔹 b) Limited availability of coking coal, 

🔹 c) Low productivity of labour, 

🔹 d) Irregular supply of energy, 

🔹 e) Raw materials are found in a certain pockets of India only, 

🔹 f) Poor infrastructure like transport and communication etc.

❇️ Iron and steel industries is concentrated in and around Chhota nagpur Plateau Region because :-

🔹 Low cost of iron-ore which is mined here; 

🔹 High grade raw materials in close proximity; 

🔹 Availability of cheap labour; 

🔹 Vast growth potential in the home market; 

🔹 Efficient transport network for their distribution;

🔹 Availability of power because this region has many thermal and hydel power plants; 

🔹Liberalization and FDI.

❇️  Aluminium :- 

🔹 It is the second most popular metallurgical industry in India.

🔹 The raw material used is a bulky dark reddish rock known as bauxite. 

🔹 It is light, corrosion resistant and a good conductor of heat and is malleable. 

🔹 It becomes stronger when mixed with other metals. 

🔹 It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires. 

🔹 Major sources are located in Orissa, West Bengal, Kerala, UP, Chattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.

❇️ Uses of aluminium :-

🔹 It is used for manufacturing aircraft's; 

🔹 It is used for making utensils and packing material;

🔹 It is used for making wires; 

🔹 It has gained popularity as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries.

❇️ Electronic industry :-

🔹 It produces a wide range of products from transistor sets to televisions and computers for the masses. 

🔹 it has helped us set up telephone exchanges, telephones, cellular telecom, radios and many other equipment which have application in space technology, aviation, defense, meteorological departments, etc. 

🔹 It has generated employment for a large number of people. This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner because of its fast growing Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) Sector. 

🔹 India is one of the leading countries in software development. We have 18 software technology parks which provide high data communication facility to software experts.

❇️ Chemical Industry :-

🔹 Contributes approximately 3 percent of annual GDP. 

🔹 In terms of size, it is the third largest industry in Asia and the twelfth largest in the world. 

🔹 Organic and inorganic sectors of the industry are rapidly growing. Organic chemicals include petrochemicals. Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid, nitric acid,alkalis, soda ash, caustic soda, etc.

❇️ Fertiliser Industry :-

🔹 India is the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilizers. 

🔹 Fertiliser industry is centred around the production of nitrogenous fertilisers,phosphatic fertilisers and ammonium phosphate and complex fertilisers. 

🔹 Complex fertilisers have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P) and potash (K). Potash is entirely imported because India does not have any reserves of commercially viable potash or potassium compounds.

❇️ Cement Industry :-

🔹 Cement industry requires bulky raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum. 

🔹 There are many cement plants in Gujarat because of proximity to ports. 

🔹 There are 128 large and 323 mini cement plants in India. 

🔹 Improvement in quality has found the Indian cement a readily available market in East Asia, Middle East, Africa and South Asia. This industry is doing well in terms of production as well as export. 

❇️ Automobile Industry :-

🔹 After liberalisation, many automobile manufacturers set their base in India. 

🔹 At present, there are 15 manufacturers of cars and multi-utility vehicles, 9 of commercial vehicles, 14 of two and three-wheelers. 

🔹 Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur, Bangalore, Sanand, Pantnagar, etc. are the major centres of automobile industry.

❇️ Industrial pollution and Environmental Degradation :-

🔹  Industries are responsible for four types of pollution.

👉  Air pollution


🔹 Caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

🔹 Airborne particulate materials contain both solid and liquid particles like dust, sprays mist and smoke.

🔹 Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories. 

🔹 Toxic gas leaks can be very hazardous with long-term effects. Adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings and the atmosphere.


🔹 Caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents discharged into rivers.

🔹 Main culprits in this regard are paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries that release dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals. 


🔹 Occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling. 

🔹 Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages. 

🔹 Soil and water pollution are closely related.

🔹 Dumping of wastes specially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging, salts and garbage renders the soil useless. 

🔹 Rain water percolates to the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and the ground water also gets contaminated.

🔹 Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills contribute to noise pollution.

🔹 Noise pollution not only results in irritation and anger, it can also cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure among other physiological effects.

❇️ Measures to control air pollution :-

🔹 Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators etc. 

🔹 Equipment's to control aerosol emissions can be used in industries, e.g., electrostatic precipitators, scrubbers and inertial separators. 

🔹 Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.

❇️ Water pollution caused by industries can be controlled by :-

🔹 Minimizing the use of water for processing by reusing and recycling. 

🔹 Harvesting of rain-water to meet water requirements of industries and other domestic purposes. 

🔹Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds in the following ways: Primary treatment by mechanical means such as screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation. Secondary treatment by biological process. Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes. This involves recycling of waste water.

❇️ Pro-active approach adopted by the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) for preserving the natural environment and resources. 

🔹 Optimum utilization and up-gradation of equipment by adopting latest techniques. 

🔹 Minimizing waste generation by maximizing ash utilization. 

🔹 Providing green belts for nurturing ecological balance. 

🔹 Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management.

🔹 Ecological monitoring, reviews and online data base management for all its power stations.

❇️ Steps to minimize the environmental degradation caused by industrial development :-

🔹Minimizing use of water for processing by reusing and recycling in two or more successive stages. Harvesting of rain water to meet domestic and industrial water requirements. 

🔹 Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds. 

🔹 Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators. Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories. 

🔹 Machinery and equipments can be fitted with silencers to prevent noise pollution.