10 Class Geography Notes in English chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources


10 Class Geography Notes in English chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources

CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science GEO Minerals and Energy Resources. GEO Minerals and Energy Resources: Types of minerals, distribution, use and economic importance of minerals, conservation, types of power resources: conventional and non-conventional, distribution and utilization, and conservation.

Class 10th Geography chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources Notes in English

📚 Chapter = 5 📚
👉 Minerals and Energy Resources ðŸ‘ˆ

❇️ Minerals :-

🔹 Mineral as a "homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure. 

🔹These are found in varied forms in nature, ranging from the hardest diamond to the softest talc.

❇️ Rock :-

🔹 A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals but without definite composition of a constituent of mineral.

❇️ Mode of Occurrence of Minerals :-

 Minerals are usually found in 'ores'.

🔹 The accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements is called ore.

❇️ Ores :-

🔹 Rocks from which minerals are mined are known as ores. Although more than 2,800 types of minerals have been identified, only about 100 are considered ore minerals.

❇️  Minerals generally occur in these forms :-

🔹 In igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger are called lodes. Example: tin, copper, zinc and lead etc. 

🔹 In sedimentary rocks, a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. Example: Coal, iron, gypsum, potash salt, sodium salt etc. 

🔹 Minerals also found in the decomposition of surface rocks, and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores. Example: Bauxite.

10 Class Geography Notes in English chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources
🔹 Minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills known as 'placer deposits". Example: Gold, silver, tin and platinum etc. 

🔹 The ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals. Example: Common salt, magnesium and bromine etc.

❇️  Minerals can be categorized into 3 types :-

👉 1) Metallic minerals 
👉 2) Non-metallic minerals 
👉 3) Energy minerals coal, petroleum, gas

❇️ Metallic Minerals :-

🔹 These minerals contain metals. 
🔹 These are of three types :-

👉  a) Ferrous 
👉 b) Non-ferrous 
👉 c) Precious 

❇️  Ferrous minerals :-

🔹 These minerals contain iron. 

🔹 lt accounts for about three-fourths of the total value of the production of metallic minerals. 

🔹 They provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries.

✴️ Iron Ore :-

🔹 It is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development. 

🔹 Magnetite is the finest iron ore with a very high content of iron up to 70 percent. 

🔹 Hematite ore is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of the quantity used, but has a slightly lower iron content than magnetite. (50-60 percent). 

🔹 India is rich in good quality iron ores. 

✴️ The major iron ore belts in India are :-

🔹Odisha-Jharkhand belt 
🔹 Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra 
🔹 Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt in Karnataka 
🔹 Maharashtra-Goa belt in Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra.

✴️ Manganese :-

🔹 It is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro- manganese alloy. 

🔹  It is also used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides and paints. 

🔹 Orissa is the largest producer of manganese ores in India.

❇️  Non-Ferrous Minerals :-

🔹 These minerals do not contain iron. 

🔹 They play role in a number of metallurgical, engineering and electrical industries. 

🔹 Example of Non-ferrous minerals includes copper, bauxite, lead, zinc and gold. 

✴️ Copper :-

🔹 It is malleable, ductile and a good conductor, therefore, copper is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries. 

🔹 The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh, Khetri mines in Rajasthan and Singhbhum district of Jharkhand are leading producers of copper.

✴️ Bauxite :-

🔹 It is a clay-like substance from which alumina and later aluminium is obtained. 

🔹 Aluminium is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals such as iron, with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleability. 

🔹 In India, mainly found in the Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni.

❇️ Non-Metallic Minerals :-

🔹 These minerals do not contain metal. 

✴️ Mica :-

🔹 It is a mineral made up of a series of plates or leaves. 

🔹 It can be clear, black, green, red yellow or brown. 

🔹 Mica is one of the most indispensable minerals used in electric and electronic industries due to its excellent di- electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage, 

🔹 Leading producer are northern edge of the Chota Nagpur plateau. Koderma Gaya - Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand. 

🔹 Also produce in Ajmer, Rajasthan. Nellore mica belt of Andhra Pradesh.

✴️ Limestone :-

🔹 Limestone is found in association with rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates. 

🔹 It is the basic raw material for the cement industry and essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.

❇️  Conservation of Minerals :-

✴️ Conservation of minerals :-

🔹 It takes millions of years for the formation of minerals.  Therefore, minerals fall under the category of non-renewable processing.  

🔹 The process of replenishing minerals is very slow compared to the fast we are using minerals.  Hence conservation of minerals becomes important.

✴️ How to conserve minerals ?

🔹 A joint effort has to be made in order to use our mineral resources in a planned and sustainable manner. 

🔹 Improved technologies need to be constantly evolved to allow use of low grade ores at low costs. 

🔹 Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes.

❇️  Side effects of mining :-

🔹 Mining is a deadly industry for the laborers working in the mines and the people living nearby.  Miners have to work in a difficult situation.  Natural light cannot be found inside the mine.  

🔹There is always a danger of mine roof collapsing, watering and fire.  There is a huge dust problem in the areas around the mine.  Slurry from the mine damages roads and fields.  

🔹 Homes and clothes get dirty more quickly in these areas.  Miners are more prone to respiratory disease.  Mining areas have more cases of respiratory disease.

❇️  Energy Resources :-

🔹 Energy is needed to cook, to provide light and heat, to propel vehicles and to drive machinery in industries. 

🔹 It can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium and from electricity.

❇️  Energy resources can be classified as :- 

✴️ Conventional sources :- include firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity 

✴️ Non-conventional sources :- include solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas and atomic energy.


🔹 Coal 
🔹 Petroleum 
🔹 Natural 
🔹 Gas Electricity

❇️  Coal :-

🔹 It is the most abundantly available fossil fuel. 

🔹 It is used for power generation, to supply energy to industry as well as for domestic needs. 

🔹 Coal is formed due the compression of plant material over millions of years. 

🔹 There are various types of coals (on the degrees of compression and the depth and time of burial):

❇️ Four types of coal and their characteristics :-

✴️ (a) Anthracite :-

🔹It is the highest quality hard coal; 
🔹 contains more than 80% carbon content It gives less smoke.

✴️ Bituminous :-

🔹 It is the most popular coal in commercial use and has 60-80% carbon content.
🔹 Metallurgical coal is high grade bituminous coal and is of special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces. 

✴️ Lignite :-

🔹It is a low grade brown coal.
🔹 It is soft with high moisture content. The main lignite reserve is Neyveli in Tamil Nadu. 

✴️ Peat :-

🔹 It has a low carbon and high moisture content.
🔹 It has low heating capacity and gives lot of smoke on burning.

❇️  Petroleum :-

🔹 After coal, petroleum is the main energy resource of India.  Petroleum is used as a source of energy in many functions.  In addition, petroleum products are used in many industries as raw materials.  Examples: plastics, textiles, pharmaceuticals, etc.

🔹 63% of India's petroleum originates from Mumbai High.  18% comes from Gujarat and 13% comes from Assam.  Gujarat's most important oil field is in Ankleshwar.  The oldest petroleum producer in India is Assam.  The main oil wells of Assam are in Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran - Hugrigan.

❇️ Natural Gas :- 

🔹 Natural gas is either found with petroleum or even alone.  It is also used as fuel and raw material.  Large deposits of natural gas have been discovered in the Krishna Godavari basin.  The Gulf of Khambhat, Mumbai High and Andaman Nicobar also have large reserves of natural gas.

🔹 Natural gas have been discovered in the Krishna- Godavari basin, Mumbai High and allied fields, Gulf of Cambay. Andaman and Nicobar islands.

❇️ Electricity :-

🔹 It has a wide range of applications in today's world. 

👉 Electricity is generated mainly in two ways: 

🔹 by running water which drives hydro turbines to generate hydro electricity.
🔹 by burning other fuels such as coal. petroleum and natural gas to drive turbines to produce thermal power. 

👉 Hydro electricity is generated by fast flowing water 

🔹 It is a renewable resource. 
🔹 Multi-purpose projects like the Bhakra Nangal, Damodar Valley corporation, the Kopili Hydel Project etc. produce hydro electricity. 

👉 Thermal electricity is generated by using coal, petroleum and natural gas. 

🔹 The thermal power stations use non-renewable fossil fuels for generating electricity.

❇️ Non-Conventional Sources of Energy 

✴️ Nuclear or Atomic Energy. 

🔹 It is obtained by altering the structure of atoms. It is used to generate electric power. 

🔹 Uranium and Thorium are available in Jharkhand and the Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan. 

🔹 The Monazite sands of Kerala is also rich in Thorium.

❇️  Solar Energy :-

🔹 India is a tropical country, therefore it has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy.

🔹 Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity. 

🔹 Solar energy is fast becoming popular in rural and remote areas which help in minimising the dependence of rural households on firewood and dung cakes that will contribute to environmental conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture.

❇️  Wind Power :-

🔹 India has great potential of wind power. 

🔹 Largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai. 

🔹 Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep have important wind farms. 

🔹 Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer are well known for effective use of wind energy in the country.

❇️  Biogas :-

🔹 Shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste are used to produce biogas for domestic consumption in rural areas. 

🔹 Biogas plants using cattle dung are known as "Gobar gas plants' in rural India. 

🔹 Biogas provide twin benefits to the farmer in the form of energy and improved quality of manure. 

❇️ Tidal Energy :-

🔹 Oceanic tides can be used to generate electricity.

🔹 In India the Gulf of Khambhat, the Gulf of Kuchchh in Gujarat on the western coast and Gangetic delta in Sunderban regions of West Bengal provide ideal conditions for utilising tidal energy.

❇️  Geo Thermal Energy :-

🔹 The heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth is called Geo thermal Energy. 

🔹  Groundwater in high temperatures area absorbs heat from the rocks and becomes hot. 
* It is so hot that when it rises to the earth's surface, it turns into steam. 
* This steam is used to drive turbines and generate electricity. 

🔹 Two experimental projects been set up in India to utilize geothermal energy: 
* Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh 
* Puga Valley, Ladakh.

❇️ Conservation of Energy Resources :-

🔹 Energy is a basic requirement for economic development. 

🔹 The economic development plans implemented since Independence necessarily required increasing amounts of energy to remain operational. 

🔹 Promotion of energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy sources are the twin planks of sustainable energy. 

🔹 India is presently one of the least energy efficient countries I the world 

🔹 Energy saved is energy produced.