10 Class Geography Notes in English chapter 4 Agriculture


10 Class Geography Notes in English chapter 4 Agriculture

CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science GEO Agriculture GEO Agriculture: Types of farming, major crops, cropping pattern, technological and institutional reforms; their impact; contribution of Agriculture to national economy - employment and output.

Class 10th Geography chapter 4 Agriculture Notes in English

📚 Chapter = 4 📚
👉 Agriculture ðŸ‘ˆ

❇️ Agriculture :-

🔹 Two-thirds of India's population is engaged in agricultural activities. 

🔹 Agriculture is a primary Activity, which produces most of the food raw material for various industries. 

👉 In Geography Chapter 4 - Agriculture, you will study about the various types of farming, cropping patterns and major crops grown in India. In the end, you will know how much Agriculture contributes to the National Economy, Employment and Output.

❇️  Types of Farming :-

🔹 The cultivation methods depend upon the characteristics of the physical environment, technological know-how and socio-cultural practices. Farming varies from subsistence to commercial type. In different parts of India, the following farming systems are practiced.

👉  1.Primitive Subsistence Farming 
👉  2.Intensive Subsistence Farming 
👉  3.Commercial Farming

❇️ Primitive Subsistence Farming :-

🔹 It is'slash and burn' agriculture. Farmers clear a patch of land and produce cereals and other food crops. When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation. It is known by different names in different parts of the country. It is known as jhumming in north- eastern states. 

👉 Land productivity is low in this type of agriculture. 
👉 This type of farming depends on monsoon. 
👉 This farming is practised in few parts of India.
👉 Others name of primitive agriculture :-

🔹  North Eastern State  - jhuming
🔹 Bastar district of chhattisgarh - dipa
🔹 Mexico - Milpa
🔹 Indonesia - Ladang
🔹 Vietnam - Ray 

❇️ Intensive Subsistence Farming :-

🔹 It is practised in areas of high  population pressure on land.

🔹 Labour intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.

🔹 Farmers continue to take maximum output from the limited land in the absence of alternative source of livelihood. 

🔹 'right of inheritance' leading to the division of land among successive generations has rendered land-holding size uneconomical.

❇️ Commercial Farming :-

🔹 It mainly involves cultivation of crops like rice, sugarcane, banana, tea, coffee.

🔹 These are grown on large lands with the help of high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides. 

🔹 Commercial farming depends on degree of commercialization. 

🔹 For example, rice is commercial crop for Haryana and Punjab, hence, it in these states it is available in large quantities for sale. However, in Odisha, rice is subsistence crop.

🔹 This cultivation is practiced mainly in Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Maharashtra.

❇️ Plantation :-

🔹 Plantation is a type of commercial farming in which a single crop is grown on a large area. Plantations cover large tracts of land, using capital intensive inputs, with the help of migrant labourers. All the produce is used as a raw material in industries. Eg: Tea, Coffee, Rubber, Sugarcane, Banana.

❇️ Cropping pattern :-

🔹 It is a yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of sowing and fallow on a given area. 

🔹 In India, the cropping pattern determined by rainfall, climate, temperature, soil type and technology. 

👉 Any change in the cropping pattern would cause: 
🔹change in the proportion of land under different crops .
🔹 change in space sequence and time of crops.

❇️ Cropping Pattern in india :-

👉 India has three cropping seasons: 

🔹 1. Rabi 
🔹 2. Kharif 
🔹 3. Zaid

❇️ Rabi crops :-

🔹 Sown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June. 

🔹 important rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard.

🔹 Found usually in the north and northwestern parts such as Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh.

🔹 The success of the green revolution in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan has been an important factor in the growth of the above mentioned rabi crops.

❇️ Kharif crops :-

🔹 Grown with the onset of monsoon in and harvested in September-October. 

🔹 Important crops grown are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean.

🔹 Important rice-growing regions are Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Maharashtra, particularly the (Konkan coast) along with Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. 

🔹 In states like Assam, West Bengal and Orissa, three crops of paddy are grown in a year. These are Aus, Aman and Boro.

❇️  Zaid crops ( summer season crops) :-

🔹 They grow in long time period mainly from March to June. 

🔹 These crops are mainly grown in the summer season during a period called the "Zaid crop season."

🔹 They require warm dry weather as major growth period and longer day length for flowering. 

🔹 The time between kharif crops and rabi crops.

❇️  Major Crops in India :-

👉 A variety of food and non-food crops are grown in different parts of India depending upon the variations in soil, climate and cultivation practices. Major crops grown in India are: 

🔹 Rice 
🔹 Wheat 
🔹 Millets 
🔹 Pulses 
🔹 Tea 
🔹 Sugarcane 
🔹 oil seeds 
🔹 Jute 

👉 We will discuss all of these one by one, in detail.

📚 Major crops : [ Grains ] 📚

❇️ Rice :-

🔹 It is the staple food and kharif crop.

🔹 India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China.

🔹 Requires high temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm.

🔹 In the areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation. 

🔹 Rice is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions. 

🔹 Canal irrigation and tubewells have made it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.

❇️ Wheat :-

🔹 This is a rabi crop. 

🔹 It requires a cool growing season and bright sunshine at the time of ripening. 

🔹 It requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall evenly distributed over the growing season. 

🔹 The Ganga-Satluj plains in the north-west and black soil region of the Deccan are two main wheat-growing zones in India. 

🔹 It is the second most important cereal crop and main food crop, in the north and north- western part of India.

🔹 Major wheat- producing states are Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan and parts of Madhya Pradesh.

❇️ Millets :-

🔹 Millets are called coarse grains. They have high nutritional value, important part of the diet for poor people. Examples:

✴️  RAGI :-

🔹 Ragi is very rich in iron, calcium, other micro nutrients and roughage. grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils. Karnataka is the largest producer of ragi followed by Tamil Nadu.

✴️ JOWAR :-

🔹 Jowar is the third most important food crop. It is a rain-fed crop mostly grown in the moist areas which hardly needs irrigation. Maharashtra is the largest producer of jowar followed by Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

✴️ BAJRA :-

🔹 Bajra grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil. Rajasthan is the largest producer of bajra followed by Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana.

❇️  Maize :-

🔹 It is a Kharif crop. 

🔹 It requires temperature between 21°C to 27°C and grows well in old alluvial soil. 

🔹 It is used both as food and fodder. 

🔹 Major maize-producing states are Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. 

❇️ Pulses :-

🔹 India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world. 

🔹Pulses are the major source of protein in a vegetarian diet. 

🔹 Major pulses grown in India are Tur (Arhar), Urad, Moong, Masur, Peas and Gram. 

🔹 Pulses are mostly grown in rotation with other crops so that the soil restores fertility. 

🔹 Major pulse producing states are Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka.

📚  Food Crops other than Grains 📚

❇️ Sugarcane :-

🔹 It is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop.

🔹 It grows well in hot and humid climates with a temperature of 21°C to 27°C and annual rainfall between 75cm to 100cm. 

🔹 It can be grown on a variety of soils. 

🔹Needs manual labour from sowing to harvesting.

🔹India is the second largest producer of sugarcane only after Brazil. 

🔹 Sugarcane is the main source of Sugar, Gur (Jaggery), Khansari and molasses. 

🔹 The major sugarcane-producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.

❇️ oilseeds :-

🔹 Different oil seeds are grown covering approximately 12% of the total cropped area of India. Main oil- seeds produced in India are: 

🔹 Groundnut: is a Kharif crop and accounts for half of the major oilseeds produced in India. Gujarat is the largest producer of groundnuts. 
🔹 Mustard: is a rabi crop. 
🔹 Sesamum (til): is a Kharif crop in the north and rabi crop in south India. 
🔹 Castor seeds: It is grown as both Rabi and Kharif crop. 
🔹 Linseed. is a rabi crop. 
🔹 Coconut 
🔹 Soyabean 
🔹 Cotton seeds 
🔹 Sunflower

❇️ Horticulture Crops :-

🔹 India is a producer of tropical as well as temperate fruits. Major crops produced are pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potato. Some of the famous horticulture crops grown in India are: 

🔹 Mangoes of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal 
🔹 Oranges of Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya), bananas of Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. 
🔹 Lichi and Guava of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar 
🔹 Pineapples of Meghalaya 
🔹 Grapes of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Maharashtra 
🔹 Apples, pears, apricots and walnuts of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh

📚  Bevarage Crop: Tea and Coffee 📚

❇️ Tea :-

🔹 Tea is an evergreen plant that mainly grows in tropical and subtropical climates.

🔹 Tea is a labour intensive crop and 50% of the labourers are women. It grows faster under light shade. 

🔹 Commercial cultivation of tea started in India from British era. 

🔹 India is the 2nd largest producer and the largest consumer of tea in the world. 

🔹 Tea plants require high rainfall but its roots cannot tolerate water logging. Hence, it requires sloppy areas.

❇️ Coffee :-

🔹 Coffees are grown in shade and commonly with two tiers of shade.

🔹 Growing altitudes of coffee range between 1,000 to 1,500 m above sea level for Arabica (premier coffee), and 500 to 1,000 m for Robusta (lower quality).

🔹 Both varieties are planted in well-drained soil conditions that favour rich organic matter. 

🔹 Coffee plantation is done along hilly slope. 

🔹 Slopes of Arabica tend to be gentle to moderate, while Robusta slopes are gentle to fairly level.

📚 Major Non-Food Crops 📚

❇️ Rubber :-

🔹 It is an equatorial crop. 

🔹 It requires a moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200cm and temperature above 25°C. 

🔹 It is an important industrial raw material.

🔹 Mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman and Nicobar islands and Garo hills of Meghalaya.

❇️ Fibre :-

🔹 Cotton Jute, Hemp and Natural Silk are the four major fiber crops. 

🔹 Cotton, Jute and Hemp are grown in the soil. 

🔹 Natural Silk is obtained from cocoons of the silkworms fed on green leaves.

🔹 Rearing of silkworms for the production of silk fibre is known as Sericulture.

❇️ Cotton :-

🔹 It is a Kharif crop.

🔹 It requires high temperature, light rainfall, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth. 

🔹 Cotton grows well in black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau. 

🔹 Major cotton- producing states are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

❇️  Jute :-

🔹 It is known as the golden fiber. 

🔹 It grows well on well- drained fertile soils in the flood plains. High temperature is required for its growth. 

🔹 It is used in making gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artifacts. 

🔹 Major jute producing states are West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha and Meghalaya.

❇️  Technological and Institutional Reforms :-

✴️ Technological Reforms :- 

🔹 Use of tube-wells and water-pumps, tractor, tiller, thresher etc. 

🔹 Similarly, drip irrigation and sprinklers are used for irrigation, where the water supply is less and to irrigate more places with less water. 

🔹 Chemical fertilizers which have been used on a large scale are now being supplemented by bio fertilizers to retain the fertility of the land. 

🔹 The farm produces are carried to the market on trucks through all weather roads and faster means of transport.

✴️ Some Initiatives taken by the Government are :-

🔹 Schemes introduced by Government such as Kissan Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS). 

🔹 Special weather bulletins and agricultural programs for farmers on the radio and television were introduced. 

🔹 The government also announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.

✴️ Institutional Reforms :-

🔹 To initiate with government to provide facilities to the farmers. The government has started many programmes like Green Revolution, White Revolution or Operation floods. 

🔹 The government has assembled small lands to make them economically practicable. 

🔹 Radio and television broadcasting tell farmers about the new and improved techniques of cultivation or to give upto-date knowledge to the farmers.


🔹 In the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development programme was initiated, which included both institutional and technical reforms. 

🔹 Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease, establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks were some important steps taken by the government of India. 

🔹 Kissan Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) are some other schemes introduced by the Government of India for the benefit of the farmers.

🔹 Moreover, special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on the radio and television. 

🔹 The government also announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.

❇️ Contribution of Agriculture to the National Economy, Employment and Output :-

🔹 In 2010-11 about 52% of the total workforce was employed by the farm sector. 

🔹 The share of agriculture in the GDP is declining. 

🔹 Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centers, horticulture development, research and development in the of meteorology and weather forecast, etc. are a few of the initiatives introduced by the government to improve Indian agriculture.

❇️  Food Security :-

🔹  The number of people who do not have food security is disproportionately large in some region of our country particularly in economically less developed states with the higher incidence of poverty. 

🔹 The focus of the policy is on fixing the support price for procurement of wheat and rice to maintain their stocks. Food Corporation of India. 

🔹 The FCI procures food grains from the farmers at the government announced minimum support price. 

🔹 The competition for land between non agriculture uses such as housing etc., 

🔹 The farmers are badly affected by the uncertainties of production and market. 

🔹 The higher the supply the lower is the demand.

❇️  Impact of Globalization on Agriculture 
: The positive impact of globalisation in India has been tremendous. 

🔹 Consumers now enjoy improved quality and lower prices for several products. 

🔹 Due to globalisation many MNCS have increased their investments in India. This means thousands of people are getting highly paid jobs and, enjoy much higher standards of living than was possible earlier. 

🔹 Top Indian companies have benefit from increased competition. 

🔹 They have invested in newer technology and production methods and raised their production standards. 

🔹 Services such as data entry, accounting, and administrative tasks, are now being done cheaply in India and exported to the developed countries. This has generated thousands of jobs.

❇️  The negative impacts of globalization on Indian culture: 

🔹 Family Structure. 
🔹 Marriage Values. 
🔹 Social Values. 
🔹 Adultery. 
🔹 Food, Clothing. 
🔹 Employment and the Agricultural Sector.