10 Class Geography Notes in English chapter 3 Water Resources


10 Class Geography Notes in English chapter 3 Water Resources

CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science GEO Water Resources. GEO Water Resources: Sources, distribution, utilisation, multi-purpose projects, water scarcity, need for conservation and management, rainwater harvesting.

Class 10th Geography chapter 3 Water Resources Notes in English

📚 Chapter = 3 📚
👉 Water Resources👈

❇️ Water :-

🔹 Water is a renewable resource.
🔹 Three-fourth of the earth's surface is covered with water but only a small proportion of it accounts for freshwater fit for use. 

❇️  Three fresh water sources are :-

✴️ Precipitation :- from rainfall; 
✴️ Surface water :- in rivers, lakes, etc.; ✴️ Ground water :- water stored in underground acquirers which gets recharged by rainfall.

❇️ Some facts and Figures :- 

🔹 96.5 percent of the total volume of world's water is estimated to exist as oceans and only 2.5 per cent as freshwater. 

🔹 India receives nearly 4 percent of the global precipitation and ranks 133 in the world in terms of water availability per person per annum. 

🔹 By 2025, it is predicted that large parts of India will join countries or regions having absolute water scarcity.

❇️ Water scarcity :-

🔹 Water scarcity means shortage of water. It is usually associated with regions having low rainfall or drought prone areas.

❇️ There are many other reasons which lead to scarcity of water :-

🔹 Large growing population; In the agricultural sector, water resources are being over-exploited to expand irrigated areas and dry-season agriculture; More water required for irrigation purposes to facilitate higher food production, i. e., for doing multiple cropping and for HYV seeds; There is greater demand for water with growing urbanization and industrialization; An unequal access to water among different social groups; The quality of water is deteriorating, i.e., getting polluted by domestic and industrial wastes, chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture; Excessive use of water by industries which also require water to generate hydro- electric power to run them; and Over exploitation of water in the urban areas.

❇️ The need of the hour is to conserve and manage our water resources :-

🔹 To safeguard ourselves from health hazards. 
🔹 To ensure food security, continuation of our livelihoods and productive activities. 
🔹 To prevent degradation of our natural ecosystems.

❇️  Multi-Purpose River Projects and Integrated Water Resources Management :-

🔹 in ancient times, we used to conserve water by constructing sophisticated hydraulic structures like dams built of stone rubble, reservoirs or lakes, embankments and canals for irrigation. We have continued this tradition in modern India by building dams in most of our river basins.

❇️ Dams :-

🔹 A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. Dam" refers to the reservoir rather than the structure.

❇️  Uses of Dam :-

✴️ Dams are built :- 

🔹 To impound rivers and rainwater that can be used late to irrigate agricultural fields. 

🔹 For electricity generation.
🔹 Water supply for domestic and industrial uses.
🔹 Flood control. 
🔹 Recreation, inland navigation and fish breeding.

❇️  Adverse effects of over-exploitation of ground water resources :-

🔹 Pumping out more water from under the ground may lead to falling ground water levels. 

🔹 It will adversely affect water availability. 

🔹 This, in turn, will affect our agriculture and food security of the people. 

🔹 Impoverishment of water resources may adversely affect the ecological cycle.

❇️  Main causes of water pollution :-

🔹 Domestic wastes, especially urban sewers; industrial wastes are disposed off in the water without proper treatment; chemical effluents from industries and from agricultural sector; and many human activities, e.g., religious rituals and immersing of idols, etc. in the water also pollute water.

❇️  Measures for water conservation :-

🔹 Do not overdraw the ground water, recharge it by techniques like rainwater harvesting; tapping rainwater in reservoirs, watershed development programmes, etc. 

🔹 Avoid wastage of water at all levels and do not pollute the water. 

🔹 Adopting water conserving techniques of irrigation, e.g., drip irrigation and sprinklers etc., especially in dry areas.

❇️ Traditional rainwater harvesting methods practiced in different parts of the country :-

🔹 Rainwater harvesting is a simple method by which rainfall is collected for future usage. The collected rainwater may be stored, utilised in different ways or directly used for recharge purposes. 

✴️ Different methods have been adopted in different areas for Rain Water Harvesting :-

🔹  In hill and mountainous regions, people built diversion channels like the guls' or 'kuls' of the Western Himalayas for agriculture. 

🔹 "Rooftop rainwater harvesting" is commonly practised to store drinking water, particularly in Rajasthan.

🔹 In the flood plains of Bengal, people developed inundation channels to irrigate their fields. 

🔹 In arid and semi-arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rain-fed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil such as 'khadins' in Jaisalmer and Johads' in other parts of Rajasthan.

🔹 The tankas are part of the well developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system and are built inside the main house or the courtyard. This is mainly practised in Rajasthan, particularly in Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer areas for saving the rainwater. Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the 'tanka' to beat the summer heat as it would keep the room cool.

👉 Tamil Nadu is the first state in India which has made rooftop rainwater harvesting structure compulsory to all the houses across the state. There are legal provisions to punish the defaulters.

❇️ 'Narmada Bachao Andolan :-

🔹 Narmada Bachao Andolan or Save Narmada Movement is an NGO that mobilized tribal people, farmers, environmentalists and human rights activists against the Sardar Sarovar Dam being built across the Narmada river in Gujarat. The movement originally focused on environmental issues related to submerging of trees under the dam water. Recently its aim has been to enable the displaced poor people to get full rehabilitation facilities from the government.

Filed Under: CBSE

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