10 Class Geography Notes in English chapter 1 Resources and Development

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10 Class Geography Notes in English chapter 1 Resources and Development

CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science GEO Resources and Development GEO Resources and Development :Types - natural and human; Need for resource planning, natural resources, land as a resource, soil types and distribution; changing land-use pattern; land degradation and conservation measures.

Class 10th Geography chapter 1 Resources and Development Notes in English


📚 Chapter = 1 📚
👉 Resources and Development ðŸ‘ˆ

❇️ Resources :-

🔹 Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as 'Resources'.

❇️  TYPES OF RESOURCES :-

🔹 These resources can be classified in the following ways :-

✴️ (a) On the basis of origin :- 

👉 ( I ) Biotic Resources 
👉 ( II ) Abiotic Resources 

✴️ (b) On the basis of exhaustibility :- 

👉 ( I ) Renewable resources 
👉 ( II ) Non Renewable Resources 

✴️ (c) On the basis of ownership :- 

👉 ( I ) Individual resources
👉 ( II ) Community Owned Resources
👉 ( III ) National Resources 
👉 ( IV ) International resources 

✴️ (d) On the basis of status of development :- 

👉 ( I ) potential Resources
👉 ( II ) developed 
👉 ( III ) stock 
👉 ( IV ) reserves

❇️ Types of resources On the basis of origin :-

✴️  Biotic Resources :- Resources which are obtained from biosphere and have life known as Biotic Resources. Such as human beings, flora and fauna.

✴️  Abiotic Resources :- All those things which are composed of non-living things are called Abiotic Resources. For example- Rocks and metals.

❇️ Types of resources On the basis of exhaustibility :-

✴️ Renewable resources :- The Resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable resources. For example - Solar and Wind.

✴️  Non Renewable Resources :- These resources take millions of years in their formation. Some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use.

❇️ Types of resources On the basis of ownership :-

✴️  Individual resources :- Resources are owned Privately by indiividual known as Individuals resources.

✴️ Community Owned Resources :- There are resources which are accessible to all members of the community known as Community owned resources.

✴️ National Resources :- All the resources within the political boundaries and oceanic area known as National Resources.

✴️ International resources :- The International Resources Panel is a scientific panel of experts that aim to help nations use natural resources sustainably without compromising economic growth and human needs.

❇️ Types of resources On the basis of status of development :-

✴️ potential Resources :- Resources which are found in a region but have not been utilised known as Potential Resources.

✴️ developed :- Resources which are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilisation known as Developed Resources.

✴️ stock :- Materials in the environement which have potential to satisfy human needs but human beings do not have the appropriate technology to access these is known as Stock.

✴️ reserves :- Reserve the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technical 'know - how' but their use has not been started.

❇️  Development of Resources :-

🔹 Resources are vital for survival and maintaining the quality of life.
🔹 It was believed that resources are free gifts of nature so, human beings used them indiscriminately and this has led to the following major problems: 

👉 Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals. 
👉 Accumulation of resources in few hands which divides the society into rich and poor. 
👉 Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as, global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation.

🔹 For a sustained quality of life and global peace, an equitable distribution of resources has become essential. 
🔹 For using resources judiciously, we need to adopt sustainable economic development. 

❇️ Sustainable Development :-

🔹 Sustainable economic development means development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations.

❇️ Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit :-

🔹 1992 In June 1992 considering the same issue more than 100 heads of states met in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, for the first International Earth Summit.

🔹 The summit was organised for addressing urgent problems of environmental protection and socioeconomic development at the global level.

🔹 The Rio Convention endorsed the global forest principles and adopted Agenda 21 for achieving sustainable development in the 21st century.

❇️ Agenda 21 :-

🔹 Agenda 21 was the declaration signed by world leaders in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), which aimed at achieving global sustainable development.

🔹 It is an agenda to fight environmental damage, poverty, disease through global cooperation on common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities.

🔹 One major objective of the Agenda 21 was that every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21.

❇️ Resource Planning :-

 Resource planning is a complex process which involves:- 

🔹 Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.

🔹 Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans. 

🔹 Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.

❇️ Conservation of Resources :-

🔹 Resource conservation at various levels is important. 

🔹 Gandhiji was very apt in voicing his concern about resource conservation in these words: "There is enough for everybody's need and not for any body's greed."

❇️ Land under Relief features :-

🔹 Supports natural vegetation, wild life, human life, economic activities, transport and communication system.
🔹 But, Available in finite magnitude.

❇️  Land under Relief features :-

✴️ Plains :- 43% :- Agriculture and Industry 
✴️ Mountains :- 30% : perennial flow of rivers, tourism, ecological aspect 
✴️ Plateau :- 27% : reserves of fossil fuels, minerals, and forests.

❇️ Land Utilisation :-

🔹 Forests 
🔹 Land not available for cultivation
🔹 Other uncultivated land 
🔹 Fallow lands 
🔹 Net sown area.

❇️  Land use patterns in india :-

🔹 Total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq. km. 
🔹 Land use data however is available only for 93% of the total area because the land use reporting far most of the North-East States except Assam has not been done fully. 
🔹 Some area of Jammu and Kashmir occupied by Pakistan and China have also not been surveyed. 
🔹 The land under permanent pasture has also decreased. 
🔹 Fallow land - left without cultivation far one or less than one agricultural year. 
🔹 Net sown area total -total area sown in an agricultural year. 
🔹 More net sown area in Punjab and Haryana. 
🔹 Less net sown area in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman.
🔹 Nicobar Islands. 
🔹 National Forest Policy in India in 1952. 
🔹 Waste land includes rocky, Arid and desert area and land put to other non agricultural uses includes settlements, roads, railways, industry etc.


❇️ LAND DEGRADATION AND CONSERVATION MEASURES :-

🔹 At present, there are about 130 million hectares of degraded land in India. 
🔹 Some human activities such as deforestation, over grazing, mining and quarrying too have contributed significantly in land degradation. 
🔹 In states like Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa deforestation due to mining have caused severe land degradation. 
🔹 In states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation. 
🔹 In the states of Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, over irrigation is responsible for land degradation.

✴️ Conservation of Land :-

👉 Afforestation & Proper management of grazing lands
👉 Planning of shelter belts 
👉 Control of Overgrazing
👉 Thorny bushes to stabilise sand dunes 
👉 Control on mining activities 
👉 Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents

❇️ SOIL AS A RESOURCES :-

🔹 Important renewable natural resource Supports plant growth and different types of living organisms.
🔹 Forces of nature such as temperature, actions of running water, wind, glaciers etc help in the formation.
🔹 Consists of organic and inorganic materials Classified into different types depending upon factors such as soil formation, colour, thickness, texture, age,chemical and physical properties.

❇️  Types of Soils :-

🔹 Alluvial Soil
🔹 Black Soil
🔹 Red and Yellow soil
🔹 Laterite Soil
🔹 Arid Soil
🔹 Forest Soils

❇️ Alluvial Soil :-

🔹 Expanded almost 45 percent of total area of India. 
🔹 These soils contains adequate propotion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime. 
🔹 These have been deposited by three important Himalayan river systems - the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
🔹 Consists various amount of sand, silt and clay. 
🔹 According to age of divided into - Khadar and Bangar. 
🔹 Ideal for the growth of Sugarcane, Paddy, Wheat and cereal and pulse crops.

❇️  Black Soil :-

🔹 In colour Black and known as regur soils. 
🔹 Due to degradation of Deccan trap 
🔹 Rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. 
🔹 Ideal for growing cotton 
🔹 Cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pardesh and Chhattishgarh.

❇️ Red and Yellow Soil :-

🔹 Soils develop a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. 
🔹 It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form. 
🔹 These are found in parts of Odisha, Chhattishgarh, southern parts of middle Ganga plain.

❇️ Laterite Soils :-

🔹 Develops in high temperature and heavy rainfall areas.
🔹 This is result of intense leaching due to heavy rain. 
🔹 Humus content of the soil low. 
🔹 Mainly found in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Naidu and hilly areas of Odisha and Assam. 
🔹 Suitable for crops like Cashew nut. 

❇️ Arid Soils :-

🔹 Range from red to brown in colour. 
🔹 Sandy in texture and saline in nature. 
🔹 Due to dry climate, high temperature, evaporation is faster.
🔹 Lacks humus and moisture.
🔹 Can be made fertile and cultivable after proper irrigation system.

❇️  Forest Soils :-

🔹 Found in the hilly and mountainous areas. 
🔹 Texture varies according to the mountain environment where they are formed. 
🔹 Loamy and silty in the valley sides. 
🔹 In snow covered experience denudation and are acidic with low human content.

❇️ Reasons of Soil Erosion :-

🔹 The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as Soil Erosion. 
🔹 The running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels as Gullies. 
🔹 The land becomes unfit for cultivation and is known as bad land.
🔹 In the Chambal basin such lands are ravines. 
🔹 Wind blows loose soil off flat or sloping land known as Wind Erosion. 
🔹Ploughing is wrong way is also the reason behind of soil erosion.