10 class Social Science History Notes in english chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science HIS The Rise of Nationalism in Europe HIS The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: (a)The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s. (b) The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc. (c) General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany and Greece.
Class 10th Social Science History chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Notes in English
📚 chapter 1 📚👉 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe 👈
📚 chapter 1 📚
✳️ WHAT IS NATIONALISM :-
🔹 Nationalism is a feeling of belonging and loyaity that causes people think of themselves as a Nation.
🔹 During 19th & 20h centuries Nationalism was a powerful force that could create:
🔹 One Nation from many separate countries
(Ex. Italy & Germany)
🔹 Break one nation up into many countries
(Ex. Austria- Hungary and Turkey)
✳️ EUROPEAN SOCIETY :-
✴️ THE UPPER CLASS :-
🔹 The landed aristocracy were the dominant group.
🔹 They had common interest and lifestyle. Owned large country estates and town houses.
🔹 Most of them spoke french
✴️ LOWER CLASS :-
🔹 Majority of the people were peasants.
🔹 Most were landless and worked as serfs.
✳️ French Revolution & The Idea of the Nation :-
🔹 French revolution started in 1789.
🔹 France was a full-fledged territorial state in 1789 under rule of a monarch.
🔹 Political and constitutional changes that came in wake of the French revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from monarchy to a body of French citizens.
🔹 Various practices adopted to develop a sense of collective identity among people.
🔹 Declaration of mission to liberate Europe from despotism.
🔹Setting up of Jacobin clubs by educated middle classes and students of Europe.
🔹 It also powered revolution in all Europe.
✳️ THE IDEA OF THE NATIONALISM :-
🔹 Idea of La Patrie (the fatherland) Le Citoyen (the citizenjwere emphasized.
🔹 Adoption of new constitution with citizens enjoying equal rights.
🔹 Adopted tri color as new French flag replacing royal standards.
🔹 New hymns were composed oaths were taken & martyrs remembered in the name of natiop.
🔹 Uniform system of weights & measures were adopted.
🔹 Centralized administrative system was formulized.
🔹 French become the national language and regional dialects were discouraged.
🔹 Imaginary female allegories were used to show united nation. Such as : Marianna & Germania
✳️ Napoleon (1769-1821) :-
🔹 Ruled France from 1799 to 1815.
🔹 Also known as Napoleon I, was a French military leader and emperor.
🔹 Born on the island of Corsica.
🔹 Napoleon rapidly rose through the ranks of the military during the French Revolution (1789-1799).
🔹Assumed absolute powers in 1799 (coup d'état) by becoming the First Consul.
🔹 Crowned himself emperor in 1804 and gave Civil Code/Napoleonic Code.
🔹After a disastrous French invasion of Russia in 1812, Napoleon abdicated the throne.
🔹 On June 18, at the Battle of Waterloo near Brussels, the French were crushed by the British, Austria, Russia and Prussia (BARP).
✳️ Napoleonic Civil Code :-
✴️ 1804 In the administrative field Napoleon had incorporated revolutionary principles usually known as the Napoleonic Code. It included following codes: a.
🔹 It did away with all privileges based on birth .
🔹 It established equality before the law .
🔹 It secured the right to property .
🔹 It abolished the feudal system
🔹 It freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
🔹 In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed.
🔹 Transport and communication system were improved.
✳️ Napoleon faced mixed reactions later :-
🔹 Initially, the French armies were welcomed as harbingers of liberty. Following steps of Napoleon turned him into a tyrant from hero.
🔹 Increased taxation Censorship Forced
🔹 into the French armies
✳️ THE MAKING OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE :-
🔹 Till mid 18th century there was no concept of "Nation State" in Europe.
🔹 Society and politics was dominated aristocracy.
🔹 To the west, the land was farmed by tenants and small owners, while in Easterm and Central Europe by vast estates which were cultivated by serfs.
🔹 Emergence of working and middle classes due to industrialization in 19th cent.
🔹Educated, liberal middle classes popularized abolition of Aristocratic Privileges.
Europe was broadly divided into two classes :-,
✳️ Aristocracy :-
🔹Land owning class.
🔹 Numerically small, but dominated Europe, both socially and politically
🔹 Spoke French which was considered the language of the high society .
🔹 Families were connected through marriage.
🔹 Tenants and small land owners who worked as serfs .
🔹 Cultivated the lands of the aristocratic lords.
✴️ The growth of trade and industrial production facilitated the growth of towns and rise of a commercial class of traders.
✴️ Consequently, conscious, the new liberal emerged and nationalism educated, middle class and of popularized stood for the abolition aristocracy.
✳️ Liberal Nationalism :-
🔹 Means : Individual freedom, Equality before law, Government by consent, Freedom of markets , Abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
✴️ Liberal Nationalism
1. IN POLITIÇAL SPHERE
2. IN ECONOMIC SPHERE
✴️ IN POLITIÇAL SPHERE :-
🔹 Government by consent .
🔹 End of Autocracy .
🔹 Adoption of constitution .
🔹 Abolition of property rights.
🔹 Equality before law .
🔹 Representative Government through Parliament .
✴️ IN ECONOMIC SPHERE :-
🔹 Freedom for market.
🔹 Removal of state imposed restrictions on movement of goods and capital.
🔹 In 1834, a customs union Zollverein was formed
🔹The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.
✳️ Conservatism :-
🔹 1. Stands for the preservation of the traditional institutions of state and society such as the monarchy, the church, social hierarchies and family along with the modern changes introduced by Napoleon. Conservatism as a political ideology arose after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo.
🔹2. The conservative regimes
👉 Were autocratic .
👉 Were intolerant to criticism and dissent .
👉 Adopted the censorship of press for curbing the lberal ideals .
👉 Discouraged any questions that challenged their legitimacy .
✳️ Congress of Vienna (1815) :-
🔹 For drawing a new settlement for Europe and restoring the monarchies that were overthrown by Napoleon for creation of a new conservative order. The salient features of the treaty were as follows:
🔹 The Bourbon dynasty restored to power in France. Louis XVIII was crowned king.
🔹 France was disposed of its conquered territories.
🔹 Kingdom of Netherlands, which included Belgium, was set up in the North and Genoa was set up in the South for preventing French expansion in future.
🔹 Prussia was given new territories, including a portion of Saxony.
🔹 Austria got control over Northern Italy.
🔹 Russia got Poland.
🔹 Napoleon's confederation of 39 states was not changed .
🔹 Imposed censorship laws .
✳️ The Club of Thinkers :-
👉 This is an anonymous caricature dating to 1820s titled The Club of Thinkers'. Aa fictitious group of professors and scholars is shown in this famous cartoon. The cartoon depicts the suppression of freedom of expression.
🔹 1. The "club" is representative of all the clubs and societies that emerged at that point.
🔹 2. The board on the right lists the rules of the Club which says 'Silence is the first commandment (instruction) of this learned society.
🔹 3. It clearly depicts that the conservative regimes set up in 1815 were autocratic.
🔹 4. Most of them imposed censorship laws to control what was said in newspapers, books, plays and songs that reflected the ideas of liberty and freedom.
🔹 5. The eight professors on the caricature are muzzled to restrain themselves from speaking in case they feel tempted to speak or criticize the 1815 regime. So the intellectuals are left only with their right of thought and prudently (cleverly) pose the question, how long they will still be allowed to think.
✳️ The Revolutionaries :-
🔹 Establishment of Secret Societies to spread the Ideas of nationalism and oppose conservatism.
🔹 Mazzini viewed " Nation States" to be necessary and opposed Monarchy.
🔹 Inspired other secret societies in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland. Giuseppe Mazzini joined one such society at Carbonan.
🔹 Later, he established two more Secret societies "Young Italy" in Marseilles, and then, "Young Europe" in Berne.
🔹 Conservative frightened by his move.
✳️ Guiseppe Mazzini (1805 -1872 ) :-
🔹 Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary.
🔹 He was born in Genoa, Italy in 1807.
🔹 His efforts helped bring about the independent and unified Italy.
🔹 He was the member of the secret society of the Carbonari.
🔹 He attempted a revolution in Liguria in 1831 and was sent into exile.
🔹 He founded two underground societies Young Italy (1832) in Marseilles and Young Europe (1834) in Berne.
🔹 Metternich described him as 'the most dangerous enemy of our social order'.
✳️ Division Age of Revolution :-
🔹 Age of Revolution-1830-1848 ( can be divided under three stages)
👉 The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling .
👉 Hunger, Hardship and Popular Revolt .
👉 1848: The Revolution of the Liberals .
✳️ The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling :-
🔹 Use of culture to create idea of a Nation.
🔹 Romantic artists and poets generally criticized the glorification of reason and science.
🔹 Focused instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings.
🔹 Used Art Poetry Stories & Music to shape nationalists feelings.
🔹 Collected Folklores to spread Nationalism even among illiterates.
🔹 Language also played a vital role for e.g. The use of Polish language in Poland came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.
✳️ HUNGER, HARDSHIP AND REVOLT :-
🔹 The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe.
🔹 The first half of the nineteenth century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
🔹 Large Scale rural migration to cities led to overcrowded cities and reduced Jobs .
🔹 Stiff competition between hand made goods and cheap machine made goods .
🔹 Pegsants burdened with feudal dues as in rural areas aristocracy was stil enjoying the power.
🔹 The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and Country.
🔹 Peasants and weavers revolted and Louis Philippe was forced to flee.
✳️ The Revolution of the Liberals- 1848 :-
🔹 French Monarchy uprooted by revolt of 1848 & a Repubic hod been proclaimed.
🔹 Demand of liberal middle classes for constitutionalism with National Unification.
🔹 In Germany Professionals businessmen, Artisans decided to vote for all German Nationai assembly.
🔹 Frankturt Parliament organized in Church of St. Paul, constitution was drafted for a German nation to be Keaded by a monarchy subject to a parliament.
🔹 Offered the crown to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, He rejected joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly .
✳️ Continued.. .
🔹 Social base of parliament shifted to middle class dominance.
🔹 Lost the support of workers and artisans.
🔹 Political associations were formed by women for Political Rights.
🔹 Condervative forces suppressed liberals.
🔹 Fearing future revolutions Monarchs introduced changes.
🔹 Serfdom and bonded labour abolished.
✳️ The Making Of Germany :-
🔹 In may 1848 the liberal attempt to set up a constitutional monarchy at Frankfurt was suppressed by the monarchy military and Junkers.
🔹 After the failure of the German National Assembly , Prussian Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck took the lead in German Unification .
🔹 Three Wars for 7 years with Austria, Denmark and France completed German unification.
🔹 Prussian King Kaiser William -I become the emperor of United Germany.
Currency Banking and Judicial System was legalized .
✳️ Unification of Italy :-
🔹 Italy was divided in 7 states of which only one, Sardinia - Piedmont was ruled by an Italian dynasty. -
🔹 Ideas of Italian unification first given by Giuseppe Mazzini through his Secret Society called Young Italy.
🔹 Atter his failed revolutions in 1831 and 1848, the lead was taken by the King of Sardinia, Victor Emmanuel -II.
🔹 Chief Minister of Sardinia, Count Cavour led the unification process by diplomatic alliance with france to defeat Austria and unify its northem territories.
🔹 In the southern part, Giuseppe Garibaldi ied the movement by involving local peasant support to drive out the Spanish rulers.
🔹 Thus the process of unification wos completed with the crowning of Victor Emmanuel-Il as king of Italy in 1861.
✳️ The Strange Case of Britain :-
🔹 No British nation existed before 18th century.
🔹 Ethnic groups like English, Welsh, Scots, inhabited British Isle having their own cultural & Political Bases.
🔹 Growth of English Nations wealth and Power, English parliament seized monarchy in 1688.
🔹 Act Of Union-1707 between England and Scotland formed United Kingdom of Great Britain.
🔹 Systematic suppression of Scottish Culture, Language by English began. Many were drive out of their homeland.
🔹 British helped Protestants against Catholics of Ireland.
🔹 Later Catholic Revolt as suppressed.
🔹 In 1801 Ireland was also incorporated forcibly into United Kingdom.
✳️ Visualizing Nation :-
🔹 Nations began to be portrayed as female figures called Allegory.
🔹 Ideas like Liberty Justice, and Republic too were personified as female figures.
🔹 Allegories were erected at squares to mark national Unity.
🔹 Coins and Stamps too caried their images.
🔹 Marianne represented Republic of France and Germania portrayed German Nation .
✳️ Nationalism and Imperialism :-
🔹 Balkan Isue - Balkans become the source of Nationalist Tension in Europe after 1871 .
🔹 it was too a region of geographical & ethnic variations .
🔹 Inhabited by slaves & was under control of Ottoman Empire .
🔹 ldeas of nationalism swept over entire Balkan region .
🔹 One by one different Nationalities declared their independence through struggle.
🔹 It became an area of conflict among its Nationalities and later became one of the causes of First World War.
🔹 Each state develop jealously & hope to expand at the cost of others.
🔹 European power further complicated the situation.
🔹 They were struggling to prove their trade & military might over the others.
🔹 Countries like Russia, Germany. England, Austria- Hungary, extended their control over Balkan Area.