11th Class Physical Education Notes in chapter 2 Olympic Movement
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Ancient Olympic Games:
There are many stories regarding the origin of ancient games, but the written record is found from 776 B.C. The games were held in the Honour of God Zeus, and The Olympics is derived from the Lord Olympia a valley where first seen games were held.
Modern Olympic Games
Modem Olympic games started in 1896 with the efforts of Baron-Pierre de Coubertin of France, he is also known as the father of modern Olympics. The first Olympic games were held in Athens in 1896. Nine Countries Participated in it. Since then the Olympic games are played after every four Years. 2020 Olympic games will be held in Tokyo.
Winter Olympic Games
Winter Olympic Games (French: Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event that occurs once every four years. Unlike the Summer Olympics, the Winter Olympics feature sports practised on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympics, the 1924 Winter Olympics, was held in Chamonix, France. Tne Games were held every four years from 1924 until 1936, after which they were interrupted by World War II. The Olympics resumed in 1948 and was again held every four years. Until 1992, the Winter and Summer Olympic Games were held in the same years, but in accordance with a 1986 decision by the International Olympic Committee (1OC) to place the Summer and Winter Games on separate four-year cycles in alternating even-numbered years.
The Winter Olympics has been hosted on three continents by eleven different countries. The Games have been held in the United States four times (1932: 1960, 1980, 2002); in Fiance three times (1924, 1968, 1992); and in Austria (1964, 1976), Canada (1988, 2010), Japan (1972, 1998), hajv (1956, 2006). Norway (1952, 1994), and Switzerland (1928, 1948) twice. Also, the Games have been held in Germany (1936), Yugoslavia (1984). and Russia (2014) once. The IOC has selected Pveongchanu, South Korea, to host the 2018 Winter Olympics and Beijing, China, to host the 2022 Winter Olympics.
Summer Olympic Games
The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years. The most recent Olympics were held in Rio de Janeiro, BrazilThe International Olympic Committee organises the games and oversees the host city's preparations In each Olympic event, gold medals are awarded for first place, silver medals are awarded for second place, and bronze medals are awarded for third; this tradition began in 1904 The Winter Olympic Games were created due to the success of the Summer Olympics.
Eighteen countries have hosted the Summer Olympics. The United States has hosted four Summer Olympics (1904. 1932, 1984, 1996), more than any other nation, and Great Britain has hosted three Summer Olympics (1908, 1948. 2012). al! in London. Four cities have hosted two Summer Olympics: Athens (1896. 2004), Paris (1900, 1924). Los Angeles (1932, 1984). and Tokyo (1964. 2020). Tokyo is the first city outside of the Western world to host the Summer Olympics multiple times.
The Olympic symbol was created and designed by pierre-de-coubertin himself. He created Olympic flag which is of a milky white texture in the background with five inter linked rings of different colours. The rings symbolize the unionof five continents and meeting of the atheletes form all over the world at Olympics. The five colours are Blue, Black, Red, Yellow & Green.
Objectives of Olympics
A) To generate the sense of loyalty, brother hood and team spirit among the participants.
B) To bring the attention of the world community to understand the values of the programmes of physical education.
C) To Promote amateurism among the sport men.
D) To remove the barriers of caste, creed, religion and colour.
E) To develop good habits among sports persons.
f) To encourage moral values and unbiased behaviour through sports.
Values through Olympics
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Olympic Games are remembered for the Bishop Pennsylvania's famous sermon "The most important thing in Olympic is not to win but to take part. The important thing in life is not to triumph to struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well.
" International Olympic Committee (IOC)
For proper organization of Olympic games, the International Olympic Committee was constituted. One representative was included in this committee from each country. The head quarters of this committee is situated in Switzerland and five executive members of this committee This committee decides the venue and time for Olympic Games.
Indian Olympic Association (IOA)
Indian Olympic Association was formed in 1927, Mr. Dorabji Tata was its first president and Dr. D.B. noehren, secretary and Sh. G.D. Sondhi as Astt. secretory. I OA is functioning and is affiliated with International Olympic Committee.
Composition of Indian Olympic Association
Election of Indian Olympic Association are held in four year at the annual meeting of the General Assembly to elect the council members;- President-01, Vice President, Secretary General, Treasurer and Executive Members .
To receive sports award is an honour for the sports person as well as honour for the country, to produce such a good sportsman of international caliber, there are following award for prestigious coaches and outstanding sports persons given by the Govt, of India
Dronacharya award is given to those coaches and trainers whose players are imparted coaching and training, so that they could get position at national and International Levels. So the Govt, of India started presenting Dronacharya award to the coaches in 1985 in memory to Guru Dronacharya of Mahabharata. It is presented to such famous coaches, whose teams or player's have shown good performance at International level consecutively for three yesteryears. This award carry statue of Dronacharya, scroll of honour, cash prize of 5 lakhs.
Arjuna award is the supreme honour, which is awarded to sports man by the Govt, of India. This award is given to such sport person during that year, who has been giving extraordinary performance during the past three year. This awarded was started in 1961. It is given in the memory of Arjuna of Mahabharata. These sports award carry
A) Bronze Statue of Arjuna
B) A Certificate
c) Cash of Rs. 5 Lakhs
Rajeev Gandhi Khel Ratna Award
This award is presented for the most outstanding performance in the field o f sport and games in a year which begins from 1st april to 31 st Mareh. This award is presented to one sports person from individual sports, but it can be given to more than one person in case of team games, this award is given to the sportsmen and women of international fame and they get a medal and cash award of Rs. 7.5 lakhs.
CBSE Sports and its Organisational Setup
CBSE Organises its sports and games at cluster level Zonal level and National level in various categories and sports annually as per their calender. The sports and games are organised under the general directions of the CBSE and in conformity with its policies for ensuring the smooth conduct of CBSE affiliated inter School games. The chairman of CBSE is the chairman of the sports and games committee.
Chacha Nehru Sports Award
The aims and objectives of introduction of Chacha Nehru sports award is to identify, recognise, nurture and develop the extraordinary talent among the students studying in class VIII onwards in sports and games and students also know the importance of physical education and sports.